Your Complete Guide to Index Investing with Dan Bortolotti

Understanding Swap-Based ETFs

2018-06-17T21:02:56+00:00June 6th, 2011|Categories: ETFs and Funds|Tags: , |63 Comments

Last fall, Horizons Exchange Traded Funds launched two innovative new ETFs. Rather than simply holding the stocks in the indexes they track, these funds use a derivative called a “swap” to get exposure to the market.

While swap-based ETFs are new to Canada, they’ve been popular in Europe for years. In fact, providers such as Lyxor and db x-trackers, which together offer a couple of hundred funds, use the structure for almost all of their products. Even iShares now uses swap-based ETFs in Europe, though not in North America.

I’ve always appreciated the simplicity and transparency of traditional index funds, and swap-based ETFs don’t fit that description. But they do have the potential to offer significant advantages, especially to investors who have maxed out their RRSPs and other tax-sheltered accounts. Let’s pop the hood on these pioneering ETFs and see how they work.

I’ll show you mine if you show me yours

The first swap-based ETF to hit the Canadian market was the Horizons S&P/TSX 60 Index ETF (HXT). Like the iShares S&P/TSX 60 Index Fund (XIU), this fund tracks a popular index of the 60 largest public companies in Canada. But while XIU does so by simply holding all 60 stocks, HXT gets its exposure indirectly.

If you invest $1,000 in HXT, Horizons places your money in a cash account that earns the prevailing short-term interest rate. Horizons then enters into a total return swap with another financial institution—in this case, National Bank. This “counterparty” agrees to accept the interest on the cash account in exchange for delivering the return of the S&P/TSX 60 Total Return Index. (This includes not only the price change of the stocks, but also all of the dividends.) The upshot is that even though you do not actually own any of the stocks in the index, you have exactly the same market exposure as someone who does.

The one important difference is that HXT investors do not receive cash dividends—in fact, the ETF pays no distributions at all. All the dividends are assumed to be reinvested  as soon as they are paid out.

What’s the point?

Why would an investor buy a complicated ETF like this when they could simply use a plain vanilla index fund? The answer is that the swap structure provides two important benefits:

Low tracking error. While most well managed index funds follow their benchmarks closely, it’s not unusual for tracking errors to be a drag on returns. This is especially likely to happen when companies move in and out of the index, which may force the manager to make trades at inopportune times.

With a swap structure, this problem is eliminated. The counterparty must deliver the total return of the index precisely, and if they don’t track the index well on their end, they are on the hook for the difference. For example, if the S&P/TSX 60 enjoys an 8% price appreciation and pays a 2% dividend, then National Bank must deliver a 10% return to Horizons. Investors, in turn, get that full 10% minus only the fund’s management fee and taxes, which adds up to a minuscule 0.08%.

Note that HXT is unique in that it does not pay a swap fee to its counterparty. Its sister fund, the Horizons S&P 500 Index ETF (HXS)—which uses a swap to track the S&P 500 index of US stocks—carries an additional expense of 0.30% for the swap, in addition to its 0.15% MER. Toss in the HST and investors can expect a tracking error of 0.47%—no more, no less.

Tax efficiency. The real benefit of swap-based ETFs comes when they are held in taxable accounts. Unitholders of HXT and HXS receive the full value of any dividends paid by the companies in their indexes. However, because they receive no distributions, those dividends are not taxable.

This is fundamentally different from a simple dividend reinvestment plan. Although DRIP investors collect their dividends in the form of new shares, they still get a T3 slip every year and must pay tax as though they received them in cash. With a swap-based ETF, however, no tax is payable on the dividends as long as the investor holds the fund.

Assuming a 2% yield and a dividend tax rate of 25%, that adds up to a savings of 50 basis points per year for HXT investors. The savings would be even greater with HXS, because foreign dividends are fully taxed as income. Assuming a 2% yield and a marginal tax rate of 45%, the net benefit is 90 basis points.

It’s important to understand that the dividend portion of the returns compounds inside the ETF, and when you sell your units, you will pay capital gains taxes. That means your taxes are deferred, not avoided entirely. However, capital gains are usually taxed at a lower rate than dividends, and they are taxed at just half the rate of regular income. So investors are likely to enjoy a significant tax benefit with HXT and HXS over their entire holding period.

What else do I need to know?

While swap-based ETFs have some advantages over traditional index funds, they are not without risks. Later this week I’ll post a recent interview I did with Jaime Purvis, Executive Vice-President, National Accounts, for Horizons ETFs. He’ll discuss both the benefits and the risks of these innovative products and help you decide whether they’re right for your portfolio.



  1. Canadian Couch Potato August 19, 2015 at 8:41 am

    @Jeremy: Overall the big issues are the same in personal and corporate accounts: if you are comfortable with the risks of the swap structure, then these ETFs should be appropriate for any taxable account. One difference, as you point out, however, is that with a corporate account there is no chance of eventually being in a lower tax bracket, since corps are always taxed at the same high rate. So the tax deferral benefit is somewhat reduced (though still meaningful).

  2. Will October 9, 2015 at 1:46 pm

    CCP, thanks for the excellent posts and continued responses you provide your readers.

    I thought I’d add one more factor when considering this: if you borrow to invest (such as borrowing against your home to investment) and want to be able to write off the interest expense against your investment it seems you should not invest that part of your portfolio in these swap ETF structure!

    To be able to write off the related interest expense generally requires that the investments be paying, or is reasonably expected to pay interest or dividends. If an investment will never earn anything except capital gains, then the related interest expense is not deductible.

    I think these ETFs lean heavily into the latter definition.

    I’d welcome feedback on if my logic is sound… thanks!

  3. Canadian Couch Potato October 10, 2015 at 9:11 am

    @Will: As always I would consult a tax expert here, but in general I agree that it would be difficult to argue to CRA that a swap-based ETF is an investment that can be expected to generate income. It is specifically designed not to generate income. So if you are using any kind of leveraging with the goal of deducting the interest, a swap-based ETF is not likely to be a good choice.

  4. Michel March 25, 2016 at 10:34 pm

    Is there anything in the last Morneau budget that might affect the taxation of these SWAP ETF’s?

    Great site! Excellent posts!


  5. Canadian Couch Potato March 27, 2016 at 5:13 am

    @Michel: The current budget makes no comment on swaps. However, it seems possible that these products may be addressed in the future.

  6. Alexander June 7, 2017 at 9:25 am

    Even though this article is almost 6 years old it’s an excellent write up! Definitely helped me understand the difference between HXT and HXS. The remaining question I have is if you are using your TFSA to buy ETF’s, does it makes sense to only stick with HXT and ignore HXS? Or is the opposite true? Thank you!

  7. Ian January 20, 2018 at 3:39 am

    I’m wondering if this swap based structure…since its efficient in not paying dividends affect the adjusted cost base instead? How nightmarish is it to track this?

  8. Canadian Couch Potato January 23, 2018 at 2:48 pm

    @Ian: It would not be nightmarish at all: in fact, tracking the ACB of a swap-based ETF would be easier than with a traditional ETF, as you would never need to adjust for reinvested distributions, etc. You can just use the book value reported by your brokerage.

  9. LB April 21, 2018 at 8:52 pm

    Thanks for the great article and answers to questions.

    Should those of us interested in swap-based ETFs be looking beyond Horizon? Everything I’ve read only mentions Horizon, but just wondering if there is more out there. For example, if there are swap-based ETFs made by US fund companies trading on US exchanges, there’s no reason I can think of why a Canadian couldn’t buy them.

    Thanks in advance for any thoughts.

  10. Canadian Couch Potato April 22, 2018 at 1:02 pm

    @LB: While swap-based ETFs are popular in Europe, I am not aware of a North American provider who offers them other than Horizons.

  11. LP May 12, 2018 at 7:04 pm

    If a person has a large capital loss can that be used to offset any capital gain on a Swap-Based investment!

  12. Canadian Couch Potato May 14, 2018 at 7:56 pm

    @LP: Yes, carried-forward capital losses can be used to offset capital gains incurred from swap-based ETFs.

  13. Pacific May 24, 2018 at 11:23 am

    @Canadian Couch Potato: Many thank you’s for your clear explanations of a complicated (to me!) product. There are some subtle implications that you have pointed out that affect my situation. Koo-doo’s to you.

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