Archive | ETFs

RBC Gets Back to Basics With New ETFs

When RBC entered the ETF marketplace back in 2011, it tested the waters with a family of specialized bond ETFs. Since then they’ve created a number of equity ETFs, all with active strategies. However, RBC recently filed a preliminary prospectus for a new family of plain old index ETFs covering the core asset classes you’ll find in a classic Couch Potato portfolio.

Normally the appearance of more “me too” ETFs wouldn’t be newsworthy, but RBC’s entry is interesting for a couple of reasons. First, the new lineup will include at least one unique product: a global bond ETF. And second, it will significantly improve the bank’s lineup of index mutual funds.

I’ll discuss the mutual funds in my next post. For now let’s look at RBC’s seven new ETFs, which will hit the market in early September. The four equity ETFs are traditional cap-weighted funds of large and midcap stocks:

ETF name
Ticker
Benchmark index

RBC Canadian Equity Index ETF
RCAN
FTSE Canada All Cap Domestic Index

RBC U.S. Equity Index ETF
RUSA
FTSE USA Index

RBC International Equity Index ETF
RINT
FTSE Developed ex North America Index

RBC Emerging Markets Equity Index ETF
REEM
FTSE Emerging Index

All of the new funds track indexes from FTSE,

Continue Reading 20

Can ETFs Make the Market Go Up in Smoke?

[Note: This was an April Fool’s joke!]

Does the growing popularity of indexing and ETFs pose a real danger to the markets? As I discussed on a recent podcast, some market experts are concerned that the swelling ranks of index investors is creating a bubble. I used to brush off these concerns as the paranoid ramblings of money managers who are losing billions in assets as investors discover they add no value. But I’m starting to wonder if it might be true. After all, there are lots of articles on the Internet that say so.

A recent piece in the Globe and Mail, for example, featured billionaire hedge fund manager Seth Klarman, who worries that the growth of indexing is making markets less efficient: “The inherent irony of the efficient market theory is that the more people believe in it and correspondingly shun active management, the more inefficient the market is likely to become.”

I appreciate that index investors want to get broad diversification at the lowest possible cost, and that they’re attracted to a strategy that has the weight of academic evidence behind it.

Continue Reading 18

How TD Put the “Managed” in ETF Portfolios

What Canadian bank was first to launch a line of ETFs? You might think it was BMO, which is by far the biggest bank in the industry today, with more than 70 ETFs and some $37 billion in assets. But in fact it was TD, who were ahead of the curve when they created a small family of ETFs way back in 2001. Five years later, with truly terrible timing, they shuttered those ETFs because of lack of interest. Of course, the industry exploded in popularity almost immediately afterwards.

TD re-entered the ETF marketplace in 2016 with six funds covering the core asset classes: Canadian, US and international stocks (the latter two available with or without currency hedging) and Canadian bonds. The ETFs were copycats of what’s long been available from iShares, BMO and Vanguard, and the launch had almost no fanfare: one suspects TD just wanted to provide another option for their advisors who had been fielding questions about ETFs from clients.

But this week TD launched something innovative: a lineup of five mutual funds that use the bank’s ETFs as their underlying holdings. Each has a different target asset allocation:

Fund name
Bonds
Stocks

TD Managed Income ETF Portfolio
70%
30%

TD Managed Income &

Continue Reading 75

A New ETF Structure for Accumulators

ETF launches are generally unexciting these days: most new products focus on increasingly narrow niches or exotic strategies. But last week BMO unveiled an innovative ETF structure that may just have some lasting appeal. They launched a new share class of four existing short-term bond ETFs: called “Accumulating Units,” these new funds do not pay their distributions in cash like traditional ETFs. Instead, they reinvest all the interest payments immediately and increase the net asset value (and market price) accordingly.

An example will help. Consider a bond ETF with a unit price of $15 at the beginning of the year. Over the next 12 months it pays out 3% in interest and falls in price by 1%. The fund’s one-year total return would therefore be 2% (the 3% interest minus the 1% capital loss). If this ETF were available in both the traditional and Accumulating Units structure, both would report the same performance. But they would arrive there in different ways:

Traditional ETF
Accumulating Units

Unit price at beginning of year
$15.00
$15.00

Cash distributions (3%)
$0.45
$0

Reinvested distributions (3%)
$0
$0.45

Capital loss (1%)
-$0.15
-$0.15

Unit price at end of year
$14.85
$15.30

Value of ETF unit + cash
$15.30
$15.30

One-year total return
2%
2%

What they’re not

The idea of reinvested distributions is not new,

Continue Reading 25

Ask the Spud: Can I Make Taxable Investing Easier?

In Episode 4 of the Canadian Couch Potato podcast, I answered the following question from a listener named Jakob:

I’m currently investing with all my ETFs in RRSP and TFSA accounts. This year, however, I’ll finish paying off my mortgage, so I will have more surplus cash and will have to start using taxable accounts. I have been reading your blog posts about adjusted cost base, and they’re helpful, but it still sounds like a pain to track and calculate. I’d consider paying some extra fees for help with this. What options do I have?

Investing in a non-registered account involves a lot more hands-on work than RRSPs and TFSAs. While there’s no such thing as a maintenance-free taxable portfolio, you can certainly make your life easier with a few simple strategies:

1. Consider alternatives to ETFs. Make no mistake: ETFs are generally tax-efficient and they can be a great choice in non-registered accounts. But if you’re a novice index investor, consider other good products that require a lot less recordkeeping. Mutual funds, for example, track your adjusted cost base at the fund level,

Continue Reading 99

Model Portfolio Update for 2017

After two years with no changes to my Couch Potato model portfolios, the 2017 edition comes with an update to the ETF version.

Before I get to the details, I feel compelled to stress that if you’re currently using the older ETF portfolio, there is absolutely no reason to change. The funds I’ve swapped here are a wee bit cheaper, but the cost of selling your existing ETFs and buying the new ones almost certainly outweighs the benefits. And if the transactions would involve realizing taxable gains, then making a switch is downright nutty. To put this in perspective, the new portfolios will reduce your management fees by 0.03% annually, which works out to 25 cents a month on every $10,000 invested.

I’ve also updated my model portfolios page with historical returns to the end of 2016. As always, we’ve used actual fund performance wherever possible: for earlier periods we’ve used index data, subtracting the fund’s current MER to account for costs.

With that out of the way, here are the changes.

Zigging over to ZAG

First, I’ve replaced the Vanguard Canadian Aggregate Bond Index ETF (VAB) with the BMO Aggregate Bond Index ETF (ZAG).

Continue Reading 309

Making Sense of Capital Gains Distributions

Imagine you’re part of a group of 10 friends at a restaurant to celebrate the holidays. Everyone else arrives on time and enjoys cocktails, appetizers and a main course, while you get stuck in traffic and barely make it in time for dessert. At the end of the meal, the server brings 10 separate bills, each for the same amount. “But I only had a slice of pie!” you complain. “Why am I paying for a full meal?”

If you’re an ETF or mutual fund investor who makes a large purchase in December, you may end up feeling the same way. That’s because some funds distribute capital gains at the end of the year, and you’re on the hook for the taxes whether you’ve held the fund for a couple of weeks or the full 12 months. (Note this only applies to non-registered accounts: you don’t need to worry if you’re using only RRSPs and TFSAs.)

Giving them the slip

Let’s back up and review why this happens. Mutual funds and ETFs occasionally sell investments that have increased in value, resulting in capital gains. Over the course of the year, a fund may also do some tax-loss harvesting to realize losses that can offset some or all of those gains.

Continue Reading 29

Ask the Spud: Reverse Share Splits in ETFs

Q: I noticed the unit price of some iShares ETFs changed radically last week. For example, the iShares MSCI Singapore ETF (EWS) shot up from around $10 to $20 overnight on November 7. Another fund went from $14 to over $28. What’s going on here, and how would it affect investors? — Chris

If you wake up to find the unit price of your ETF doubled overnight, you might be tempted to think you just scored a 100% return while you slept. But unless you’re an eternal optimist, you’ll probably realize that isn’t the case. What’s happened here is called a reverse share split, or consolidation. Although the price per share of these iShares ETFs doubled (or in some cases quadrupled), the total value of each investor’s holding hasn’t changed, because they now own correspondingly fewer units.

If you’ve ever traded stocks, you’re probably more familiar with a regular stock split, whereby a company increases its number of outstanding shares by some multiple, reducing the price of each share by a proportional amount. A company with one billion shares trading at $100 might undergo a 4-for-1 split, creating four billion shares trading at $25.

Continue Reading 22

Foreign Withholding Taxes Revisited

Justin Bender and I have just completed the second edition of our popular white paper, Foreign Withholding Taxes: How to estimate the hidden tax drag on US and international equity ETFs.

Originally published in 2014, the paper explains how many countries impose a tax on dividends paid to foreign investors—most notably a 15% levy on US stocks held by Canadians. When the first edition appeared, foreign withholding taxes were not well understood by many investors and advisors, and even the ETF providers rarely discussed them. In the two years since, the issue seems to be getting more recognition. Both Vanguard and iShares, for example, have made changes to their international equity ETFs to make them more tax-efficient. That’s great news, though it also made the first version of our paper somewhat dated.

In this new edition, we’ve made some significant changes. First, we’ve removed corporate accounts from the discussion and focused on personal accounts only. We’ve also used some different ETFs in our examples, including the Vanguard U.S. Total Market (VUN), the Vanguard FTSE Developed All Cap ex U.S. (VDU) and the iShares Core MSCI EAFE IMI (XEF).

Continue Reading 97