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Tracking Errors on iShares ETFs

2018-06-16T10:17:42+00:00April 6th, 2010|Categories: ETFs and Funds|Tags: |12 Comments

About a week ago, iShares released its annual Management Reports of Fund Performance, which disclose how well each ETF performed in 2009. I highly recommend that every ETF investor take the time to look at these once a year. You may receive them in the mail from your brokerage, but if not, you can download them anytime from SEDAR. Start by following this link, type the fund company’s name in the search box, then choose “Management Report of Fund Performance” from the pull-down menu.

One of the most useful pieces of information in these reports is the fund’s tracking error. This is the difference between fund’s return and the return of its index benchmark. Each iShares report includes a line like this:

For the year ended December 31, the Fund returned 9.5% versus the Index return of 10%. The main reasons for the difference in performance of -0.5% between the Fund and the Index were management fees (-0.30%) and other miscellaneous factors (-0.20%).

You should fully expect an index fund to trail its benchmark index by the amount of its MER. That’s simply the cost of investing. But an index fund shouldn’t trail its index by much more than that: too many “miscellaneous factors” mean the fund is not well managed.

As you can see from this chart, iShares ETFs generally do a good job tracking their indexes, especially in fixed-income:

Index Fund Tracking
return return MER error
S&P/TSX 60 XIU 31.94% 31.50% 0.17% -0.44%
S&P/ TSX Capped Composite XIC 35.05% 34.46% 0.25% -0.59%
Dow Jones Select Dividend XDV 37.83% 36.90% 0.50% -0.93%
Dow Jones Select Growth XCG 22.84% 22.17% 0.50% -0.67%
Dow Jones Select Value XCV 44.87% 43.81% 0.50% -1.06%
REIT Sector XRE 55.25% 53.50% 0.55% -1.75%
S&P 500 (hedged) XSP 24.08% 22.95% 0.24% -1.13%
MSCI EAFE  (hedged) XIN 23.45% 18.11% 0.49% -5.34%
DEX Universe Bond XBB 5.41% 4.98% 0.30% -0.43%
Short-Term Bond XSB 4.54% 4.34% 0.25% -0.20%
Long-Term Bond XLB 5.49% 5.31% 0.35% -0.18%
Government Bond XGB 1.57% 1.22% 0.35% -0.35%
Corporate Bond XCB 16.26% 15.10% 0.40% -1.16%
Real-Return Bond XRB 14.50% 14.13% 0.35% -0.37%

One thing jumps out from these numbers: the iShares MSCI EAFE Index Fund (XIN), which holds stocks in developed countries overseas (Europe, Japan, Australia) has an enormous tracking error of -5.34%. When I looked at similar international funds from Claymore, TD and Vanguard, I found tracking errors in the same range, which is very unusual. This leads me to think there was some anomaly in the international markets during 2009 that made the indexes difficult to track. I’m looking into the issue and will report back when I know more.


  1. Brian April 7, 2010 at 8:40 am

    Interesting post. Something to look into when comparing index funds and etfs.

  2. Marcus April 7, 2010 at 8:41 am

    The tracking on the EAFE is a result of Fair Value Pricing. The last couple of days of the year were volatile and that causes tracking in the short-run to increase. Vanguard has a video on its website explaining fair value pricing.

  3. Marcus April 7, 2010 at 9:01 am


    The FVP will even out over longer periods to time. If you look at 3 year returns, the impace of FVP becomes almost 0. Then it is back to tracking and pricing.

  4. Canadian Couch Potato April 7, 2010 at 10:28 am

    Marcus: Many thanks for your help in explaining this. I will look into the issue further and prepare a post on this topic.

  5. Marcus April 7, 2010 at 1:58 pm

    Whenever the international markets close and the North American markets move in the other direction (up or down), there is a chance of a temporary widening of tracking error. Again, it is imperative to look at a 3 year track record and, for ETFs, the market price returns not NAV.

  6. Pacific April 8, 2010 at 10:20 am

    Hopefully you will advise on this post when your further research is reported on.
    I appreciate your investigations – 5% error is alarming!

  7. Canadian Couch Potato April 8, 2010 at 5:26 pm

    I have calls in to both iShares and Claymore. As Marcus explains above, the large error is something of an illusion that disappears over time, so there’s no need to dump XIN, but I too am interested in understanding how it comes about. Stay tuned.

  8. Week in Review – April 9 » - A financial journey to our first million dollar April 10, 2010 at 8:55 pm

    […] Couch Potato has two postings about tracking errors on Canadian ETFs. His analysis on iShares ETFs can be found here; while his analysis on Claymore ETFS can be found […]

  9. Marcus April 13, 2010 at 8:20 am

    I stand corrected on 1 issue. After making several calls to people I know, there is an additional issue regarding the tracking of the CAD hedged EAFE product. From what I am told the hedge is essentially applied once a month and this widens tracking considerably and may not even out over the long run. I am not an expert on the mechanics of a hedge so I don’t want to pretend that I understand every nook and cranny regarding that issue.

  10. Tracking Errors on Claymore ETFs July 23, 2010 at 1:53 pm

    […] my previous post, I looked at the tracking errors on iShares ETFs in 2009. In this edition, we’ll look at how […]

  11. Alain Guillot September 10, 2018 at 7:37 am

    Could there be a case in which tracking error is 0% or even positive? I know that many funds lend their shares to short sellers and they are compensated for that. There are a few zero fee funds arriving in the market, clearly, they have to cover their cost somehow.

  12. Canadian Couch Potato September 11, 2018 at 10:22 am

    @Alain: It is quite possible for an ETF’s tracking error to be zero or even slightly positive. This can happen when the ETF does not replicate its index exactly and the differences work out in their favour. While this is good in the short run, it’s likely indicative of dumb luck that can easily work against you in the future.

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